What is Urology?
Urology (or formerly Bevliye), which is translated into our language from French; Although it is a branch of science that focuses on kidney and urinary tract diseases, it aims to examine male reproductive system disorders and reproductive organs closely and to put forward competent studies in this field. If we expand the scope a little more; All diagnosis and treatment processes of organs such as kidneys, ureters, testicles, scrotum, bladder, urethra, penis and prostate gland fall under the specialization of urology clinics.
Who Is a Urologist?
While physicians specializing in urology are called urologists, we can say that urologists have become competent in this field by receiving a five-year urology residency training after six years of medical education.
Diagnostic Methods in Urology
● Ultrasound (Urinary USG, Doopler USG, Transrectal USG)
Ultrasound, which comes to our language from the word "ultrasound" in English, represents a device that gives a very high frequency sound vibration that the human ear cannot perceive as the meaning of the term. Ultrasound, which is perfect for examining the organs in the body in detail, does not cause any negative effects on the body. It is used especially during pregnancy to observe the development of the baby. Urology also stands out as another surgical branch that makes use of ultrasound devices. Cranrectal USG for the healthy diagnosis of diseases such as benign prostate development and prostate cancer, Urinary USG for the purpose of investigating various diseases involving the urinary system and the tumor diagnosed there, etc. Doppler USG, which provides the opportunity to observe the vessels in the formations, is one of the most frequently used methods.
● Laboratory Examinations
Urine and blood tests are one of the most frequently used methods for diagnosing urological diseases. The results of these tests, in which we can see the changes in the blood and urine, will determine the course of the treatment process.
Uroflowmetry, which is known as the "voiding test" among the people and is generally applied to patients who have difficulty in voiding urine, is used to measure the rate and duration of urine flow. In order for this diagnostic method to be applied in a healthy way, it is necessary to have congested urine, just like the ultrasound method. While the bladder is completely emptied, urine measurement is made with the help of Uroflowmetry device.
● Computed Tomography (CT) / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MR)
Computed tomography; It is a diagnostic method that brings together X-ray images taken from multiple angles of soft tissues, vessels and bones and combines these images. During the computed tomography procedure, the patient must lie still on the table. At this very moment, the device, which is constantly circulating around the patient, allows the patient's images to be taken from every angle. It is imperative that the patient wears a patient gown while this procedure is being performed. Otherwise, the image clarity may be adversely affected. Pregnant women and patients with suspected pregnancy cannot undergo computed tomography due to high radiation exposure.
● Voiding Cystourethrography (VSUG)
Voiding cystourethrography, which uses x-rays for its use, is a diagnostic method in which a catheter is used to view the bladder and urinary ducts during evacuation and this procedure is performed by giving contrast material. When using the voiding cystourethrography method, it is imperative that the patient does not have any metal objects on his clothes. Because metal objects can cause adverse effects on the image.
This method is used in cases where there is a suspicion of urinary reflux, which is called Vesicureteral Reflux in medical language. If untreated, Vesicureteral Reflux, which can progress to the kidneys, can lead to very serious diseases.
● PSA Test
PSA, which stands for Prostate Specific Antigen, is an enzyme that regulates the consistency and flowability of semen in the prostate. Although the PSA value of healthy individuals is very low in the blood, any disease related to the prostate will cause a change in the level of PSA in the blood. This is exactly why the PSA test, which is extremely important in the diagnosis of prostate-related diseases, can be performed at any time of the day. It is not important whether the patient is hungry or full for the test.
● Urodynamic Test
The urodynamic test is a diagnostic method that is generally used in people suffering from urinary incontinence to detect the causes of the disease. While performing the urodynamic test, the bladder is filled with liquid by using the probe. Then, the contractions experienced during ejaculation are studied in detail on the computer.
Urodynamic test; In addition to diseases such as urinary incontinence, it can also be applied to determine the causes of post-treatment complications in prostate diseases. In addition to this situation, the urodynamic test is one of the most frequently used methods for patients who frequently have problems such as urination and difficulty urinating.
● Prostate Biopsy
Prostate biopsy is a diagnostic method in which a piece of the prostate is taken to diagnose prostate cancer. Since local anesthesia is used when using this diagnostic method, no pain or pain is experienced during the procedure. After the procedure, the piece taken from the prostate is sent to pathology for detailed examination.
Urology for Women
Department of urology, which generally deals with the diseases of the excretory system in women;
- Overactive bladder
- Urinary incontinence,
-UTIs (Urinary Tract Infections in Immunosupressed Patients-Urinary System Diseases in Immunosuppressed Patients),
It deals with problems such as kidney, bladder and adrenal gland cancers.
Urology for Children
In the urology department, in general, in children;
- Urinary incontinence,
-Urinary tract structure and obstructions,
It deals with problems such as swelling or redness on the foreskin.
Sub-branches of Urology
Urology is divided into sub-branches within itself.
Andrology: It deals with sexual dysfunctions in detail.
1.) Neurourology: It deals with the excretory problems that occur as a result of the disturbance of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
2.) Pediatric Urology: It deals with urology diseases seen in children.
3.) Endourology: It deals with the formation of stones in the urinary tract and kidneys, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of these stones.
4.) Urooncology: It deals with the diagnosis and treatment of urological organ cancers such as prostate, kidney, bladder or testis.