Clinical microbiology and infectious diseases

Clinical microbiology and infectious diseases
Last Updated 26-05-2022 10:53:40

The Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases conducts studies on the diagnosis, examination and treatment of diseases caused by microorganisms in our body. The main purpose of the studies carried out in this unit is the detection of viruses, fungi, bacteria or parasites that cause disease. Depending on this determination, diagnosis and treatment methods are implemented. Although there are many diseases within the scope of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, these diseases occupy a serious place in human life. Most of these diseases are cured with correct diagnosis and treatment. 

There are many organisms that live in our bodies and are harmless under normal conditions. Besides being harmless, most bacteria help the body. However, in some cases, certain organisms can cause disease. Diseases caused by many organisms, especially bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic diseases, are included in the Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases section. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are done in this section. In particular, viral infections are infections caused by viruses. Viruses can be found in any environment just like bacteria. However, since viruses do not have the ability to reproduce on their own, they need to cling to a living microorganism. This situation, 

What are the Causes of Infectious Diseases?

While diseases that develop due to infection can occur through transmission, our body can also produce these diseases on its own. 


Bacteria, which are single-celled organisms, can be found almost anywhere. For example, various bacteria live in the air, water, human body and soil. Bacterial treatment is mostly done with the help of antibacterial drugs. Diseases such as throat, urinary tract infections and tuberculosis are the diseases most commonly caused by bacteria. Apart from these, they can also cause diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia and laryngitis. 


Even though viruses are smaller than bacteria, they cause many diseases, from the common cold to AIDS. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. This is another point that separates viruses and bacteria. 

Viruses, which cannot reproduce on their own, begin to destroy cells and spread as soon as they enter the body. Although special vaccines have been developed against some viruses, vaccines for many diseases have not been found yet. We can list the most common situations caused by viruses as follows:  

  • common cold

  • Flu

  • acute bronchitis

  • Measles

  • Laryngitis 

  • Rubella

  • AIDS

  • Hepatitis

  • COVID-19

Fungal disease

Fungal disease often occurs on the surface of the skin. However, although it is rare, it can affect the internal organs. Fungi are usually accompanied by itching and watery lesions on the fingernails and toenails, the hairy area, the groin area, or on the skin surface. Fungi, which is one of the rapidly spreading diseases, can also infect the lungs, nervous system or bones. Therefore, fungal treatments should not be neglected and should be done as soon as possible.  


Parasites that try to survive by using another living thing as a host; They can target humans as well as small creatures such as lice, pinworms, mosquitoes, scabies, tapeworms or worms. Since the parasites that attach to these hosts try to feed from there, they cause problems such as weight loss, bone pain, fatigue and diarrhea in humans and animals. It is necessary to be extremely careful against toxoplasma parasite, which can cause danger especially during pregnancy.

Who Affects Infectious Diseases Most?

Almost everyone has been exposed to infectious diseases at least once in their life. However, the most favorite and most infected individuals of infectious diseases are those with weakened immune systems.

You have been infected with infectious diseases at least once in your life. However, infectious diseases are most common in people with weakened immune systems. In particular, individuals who have undergone organ transplant surgery, those infected with HIV or AIDS, malnourished and elderly individuals have a higher risk of contracting infectious diseases than other individuals.

What are the Symptoms of Infectious Diseases?

In the case of infectious diseases, the symptoms that occur in the person may vary depending on the organism causing the infection. The most common symptoms are fever and fatigue, and home medication can be given in addition to rest for mild infectious diseases. However, since some types of infections can threaten the life of the patient, intervention in a hospital setting is essential in such cases.

Infectious diseases exhibit symptoms that vary depending on the type of infection. However, we can list the basic and general symptoms of infectious diseases as follows:

  • Fever

  • Diarrhea

  • Muscle pains

  • Tiredness

  • Cough 

In addition, if the following situations occur, it is useful to consult a doctor without wasting time:

  • If you are bitten by an animal, 

  • If you have shortness of breath

  • If you suddenly have a severe cough,

  • If you have a fever 

  • If you have a severe headache

  • redness or swelling, 

  • Sudden vision problems.

How to Treat Infectious Diseases?


The treatment process in infectious diseases may vary depending on the microorganism causing the infection. In the case of bacterial infections, antibiotic therapy is usually used, while patients suffering from viral infections are given rest and antiviral drugs. In diseases caused by fungal or parasitic infections, antifungal or antiparasitic drug treatment is applied.