Last Updated 10-02-2022 10:45:32

What is Cardiology?

Cardiology, which we can define as a branch of science that examines diseases related to the heart and blood circulatory system; While it was a sub-discipline of the Internal Medicine unit, which was known as Internal Diseases in the past, it became a department by separating from internal medicine with the decision taken by YÖK in December 1990. 

Sub-branches of Cardiology

Two sub-branches have emerged over time from the cardiology department, which has made progress beyond expectations, especially in the last 40 years. These; Interventional Cardiology and Heart Electrophysiology.   

Who Is a Cardiologist Called?

Physicians specializing in cardiology are given the title of "cardiologist". Cardiologists today, where cardiovascular diseases are increasing day by day; often face problems such as heart failure, shortness of breath, heart valve disorders, chest pains and heart rhythm disorders. Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery can often be confused with each other when it comes to heart diseases and concentrating on this area. The major difference between cardiologists and cardiac surgeons is that cardiologists do not operate. For a healthy and successful course, cardiac surgeons and cardiologists need to be in close communication.

What Diseases Does Cardiology Deal With?

Heart failure occurs when the heart, whose main task is to pump blood to the body, cannot fulfill this task for some reason. In addition to heart failure, which is a disease that cardiology deals with;
  • Ischemic heart diseases,
  • Hypertension,
  • Triscuspid stenosis,
  • aortic insufficiency,
  • aortic stenosis,
  • acute coronary syndrome,
  • Angina pectoris,
  • myocardial infarction,
  • endocardial diseases,
  • pulmonary insufficiency,
  • cardiomyopathy,
  • atrial myxoma,
  • cardiac arrest,
  • Wolf Parkinson White syndrome,
  • primary tumors,
  • cardiac tumors,
  • Peripheral arterial diseases,
  • Cardiology is used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as carotid artery disease.

Symptoms Occurring in Cardiology Diseases

Since cardiology diseases generally include diseases related to the heart and circulatory system, the symptoms occur in parallel with this situation.  
  • involuntary weight loss,
  • Palpitation,
  • Angina Pectoris, which we can describe as chest pain,
  • Hemoptysis (we can also say blood vomiting) occurring in problems related to heart valves,
  • Erectile dysfunction (impotence),
  • Syncope (fainting), which is one of the most common cardiological symptoms in patients,
  • Difficulty in breathing due to heart failure and frequent urination at night,
  • Finally, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, which we can define as shortness of breath, which is one of the biggest symptoms of heart failure and occurs so severely that it interrupts your sleep at night.

Diagnostic Methods Used for Cardiology Diseases

  • Electrocardiography: The event of this diagnostic method, known as EKG for short, is the recording of the electrical activity occurring in the heart. Thanks to this recorded information, it is possible to get information about the functioning of the heart muscle and the neurotransmission system. 
  • Holter ECG: It is a diagnostic method applied for patients who require more than 24 hours of Electrocardiography recording. 
  • Exercise Test: As a result of this test, which is used for the diagnosis and determination of the prevalence of coronary artery diseases, the level of the disease is determined by considering the symptoms. 
  • Lung X-rays: One of the most important methods used in the diagnosis of heart diseases, Lung X-rays provide us with important information about the condition of the heart and its cardiothoracic ratio.
  • Echocardiography (ECO): ECHO, which allows to study the heart structure in detail by means of a probe, is a diagnostic method used for the detection of heart failure and disorders in the heart valves.   
  • CT Coronary Angiography: This method, which is generally used for screening purposes, is applied to patients who are not suitable for coronary angiography. 
  • Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy: This diagnostic method, in which gamma lights are used, is radio nuclear imaging technique. 
  • Cardiac Catheterization: By using the Cardiac Catheterization method, which has an extremely important role in the diagnosis of coronary artery and valve diseases, a biopsy is taken from the heart by invasive means.